Recently I talked about water that was such a special substance because of all known planets, only on our Earth is it in such abundance present and moreover indispensable for living organisms.

But there is something else for which the same is true and that is air. That also makes life, as we know it, possible. And that's because of the oxygen that is in it.  

Air is a mixture with the greatest bulk of nitrogen, a neutral gas that as gas is not important to us, as well as a little carbon dioxide, of which at the moment there is too much of because it warms up the Earth.  That oxygen exists for a fifth part from what we call air. With every breath our lungs we extract a bit of that gas to give to the blood. Because oxygen provides, along with the nutrients from our gut, the energy to walk, to lift and everything for which muscle work is needed.

What the engine is for a car are the muscles for the man, they both run on fuel for which oxygen is required.

Oxygen is not present in the air from the outset.  

The age of the Earth is estimated at 4.5 billion years, which is 4, 5 x 1 with nine zeros. Only about halfway there did oxygen begin to arise because plants which secreted oxygen appeared. And thus the current nature was born where plants secrete oxygen and animals breathe oxygen in order to exist. You see how beautifully that is all settled.

But air is also indispensable in order for people to be able to talk to each other.

Without air it is inconceivable how we had built up with each other our peoples society. After all we produce sounds that have a meaning for our fellow man. We can exchange plans, express our feelings, enjoy music.

But if you think a bit further then we were able to discover the world thanks to the air and make it a world-wide habitat. Because this air blew the ship of Columbus to what he then thought to be India but appeared to be a new continent. The sail opened the world for us. And that same air now connects the world with airplanes.

Air? You can't see it but we cannot miss it.

© Max Farjon 2018

Everyone knows that black bird the size of a pigeon that you see everywhere, usually very active and often busy in conversation with his ilk: ka, ka, kia, kia.

It is also a very smart bird. If he hits upon a fat bulb on a string on a branch, then he sits down on that branch and then pulls up the string with his beak and grabs the loop with one leg and holds that against the branch. He repeats this a few times until the bulb is within its reach for consumption.

How does he get there? In the countryside, far from the people, he does not meet that situation, from childhood he's not used to pick up fat bulbs.  

I think I know the answer.

I have kept myself busy with intelligence, another word for cleverness.

I've found that all the animals are in the possession of a property, which once originated far back in prehistoric times. That property, according to my theory about intelligence, is: intelligence is the ability of an animal to devise a new manipulation that provides him advantage. Manipulation here is to hold an object, distort, or move it.  

For example, in a distant past a squirrel-like animal started to live in the tree. To move easily through the canopies he developed grabbing organs on his limbs, he became a monkey, this is called evolution.

But then he discovered a new manipulation with advantage: he could also pick out fruits from the tree which he previously bit. And the benefit was that he could get hold of fruits that were previously inaccessible.  

It is also clear that animals that are well able to manipulate can apply their intelligence better.

A cow and a horse can manipulate very little, they do not have the attributes for it.

But a jackdaw has a beak and toes on his feet where he can grab things with it, he can manipulate very well. He can therefore devise very good new manipulations and that is the reason he could get within reach of fatbulbs he never saw before.

Note that a beak and a toe cannot think.

Info? Read and check out the You-tube film.

© Max Farjon 2018

For years, with special receiving equipment, there has been systematic listening to signals which may indicate the existence of extraterrestrial life.

So far there have been no results and I think the chance of such a signal is very small. Looking back how man was created according Theorty F then one can write down a number of crucial events in prehistoric times that have been decisive.  

  1. 1. In 60 Ma, the choice of a squirrel-like animal to live in the trees brought the formation of grabbing organs that also turned out to be excellent manipulators. If this had not happened then the killer whales and dolphins, for example, would have been the most intelligent creatures on Earth.  
  1. 2. Return to ground level existence in 6 Ma due to a geological phenomenon. If this had not happened the Chimp would have been the most intelligent animal on Earth. This phenomenon made us two-legged and brought us to carving stone tools and ultimately to our highly developed technical society.


  1. 3. The long coastline of Europe that brought us to ocean shipping. Shipping that enabled us to master the world and brought the technique to staggering performances. If that hadn't happened we would have stuck at the level of the Greek, Roman or Chinese civilization.  

These 3 events were completely by chance and by the many exo-planets, with earthy properties, ours was the only one where apparently those coincidences happened after each other in the right place and the right time and led to a civilization which, amongst other things, devised wireless connections.

The 3 random events whereby man originated shouldn't be the deciding factor for the development of, for example, completely different intelligent beings in the universe.

But it's fair to say that a number of random events in the correct order and at the right time are required.

Because there is nothing nor anyone who controls the evolution to an intelligent being.  

It can be said that even after a discovery of multiple earthy exoplanets there has to be a second very difficult hurdle taken before we can greet a second intelligent civilization next to ours.


Until now, a few thousand exoplanets have been discovered including 5 with possible earthly conditions (REf.

Tentative  conclusion: we are alone in the universe.


© Max Farjon 2018

I told you how the chimpanzees became biped after the trees virtually disappeared by a natural phenomenon. And how those bipeds were forced to live close together to defend themselves from predators and the elements.

Our predecessors also lived formerly in groups but, however, much further apart.  

Col 28Living in a group is safer because there are more eyes to discover impending doom in time, one comes by food easier because what the one does not see, the other does, the members learn from the tricks to get something done from each other. In a group you catch prey easier.

One lives there more at ease, although there comes another discomfort instead. Namely the tensions that arise from competition, envy and status enforcement. These, however, count less than the chance to lose your hide or obtaining food easier. One indicates this group life of chimpanzees with a fission-fusion society (there are at the same time separating and binding forces within a group).  

This greater compactness due to the disappearance of trees forced them to new behaviour rules. The old rule: "every man for himself" caused in a compactly living group too much "fission".

To survive as a group one had to be more for each other. So altruism purely arose in order to survive and not because one started to be nice and sympathetic for each other autonomously.

In other words: If there was too much zeal and envy within a group then this was doomed to disappear, they didn’t manage protective tasks that were necessary on the ground, they were eaten or perished because of shortcomings.

© Max Farjon 2018

When 10 million years ago in East Africa, the forests changed by a natural phenomenon into Savannas, our living predecessors who, like the current chimpanzees still lived in trees, had to adapt their lives. They were forced to search for their living together in a different way.

They walked more upright all the time and started to look like a human and therefore are called hominid (= anthropomorphic).

Col 26 Exoplanet

The Savannas were populated by buffalo and deer. They were hunted by lions. The gnawed corpses were left but ungulates also died a natural death.

Sometimes those bones were cracked by the jaws of the lion or hyena and the hominid soon discovered that there was nutritious stuff inside, i.e. marrow. He started to winkle out that with his fingers but soon discovered that he could crack a bone between two stones (do you remember? He could devise new manipulations indeed, according to the rule that you have read here before).  

So the new-fangled biped became scavenger and benefitted very well from this.  

He became bigger and stronger and was able to make cutting tools from the same boulders in the long term.

© Max Farjon 2018