Max Farjon COLUMN
Arising of the wheel.
The existing explanattions of the wheel make leaps of the imagination that are all obvious because we know that the wheel is there.
That explanation starts at the rolling tree trunks underneath an object. In doing so, one must always put the free coming trunk from behind back to the front
This way of transport now lures the thoughts to jump towards the idea of cutting disks out of the trunks and to put those on shafts underneath the object.
Why would you? where would this follow from?
Nowhere is one disc signaled and not at all on a spindle.
The correct method for an explanation should start from the situation how one moved objects when there was not yet a wheel.
How one did that than?
Answer 1. by dragging over the ground by people or animals.
But there is also an answer 2: levers . One placed a wooden or iron rod between the load and a fixed object and made prying movements that did make the load move.

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If one goes out of 1, then there is not an obvious improvement conceivable. That works better with method 2.

I'm going to work this out.
To stay at a practical example I have token the construction of the pyramids in Egypt as an example. There in a long past, one has moved rectangular stone blocks during 1000 years, chances are great that than wheels emerged..
In the sequel numbers in brackets refer to figures with the same numbers in circles

As mentioned before one can move a load too heavy for man with a lever. In moving it is handy than to put the load (at pyramides it were rectangular stone blocks) upon wooden sledges (2)
The stone blocks get less easily damaged

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I think we should include this tool in the question of moving heavy loads in times that modern technical means were not yet available.

 

Due to limited human power this act is limited to limited size and weight.
However also at the pyramids, there is a development from small to large. This is shown by a passage on pyramids on internet:Monolithic, smooth sided pyramids did not just suddenly appear in Egypt. There was an evolutionary period, leading to the great pyramids of Giza that began with simple mastaba tombs, expanded into step pyramids. So there was a period that blocks of a format were those operations, as described above, could undergo.
When the result once was there: the wheel, one could also apply this on the larger stones.
(the loosening of rectangular blocks occurs by cleaving, that is to say. one drives conical rods in holes that have been made in one straight line of the desired fission). (one controlled the making of iron from ore and could make bars and rods of that material.)
So it is also conceivable that, with prying and the help of fittings a stone block is placed on a wooden sled (2) (one has created both in the quarry as also at the construction place two cascading levels that a has a step height of the thickness of the wooden sled. The steps have access by a slope).
Before the wheel existed one had two ways to move heavy loads. 1. the drag on by oxen, horses or by people or 2. By prying with a lever. Here the last is shown because the drag force exercise offers no starting point for easier moving. Here is shown how with an iron lever the sled with block after each sweep of the lever the distance V is moved. Because of the asymmetrical power exercise are two levers operated each by a person. This presentation assumes that the point of the lever penetrates the surface something so that they do not slip backwards during the exercise of power.
At this presentation it is assumed that the point of the lever penetrates the surface a bit so that it is not slipping backward during the strength exercise. Think of wood or limestone that allows intrusion of a point of a lever.

Moving this way is unsuitable for large distances, think of transport of quarry to construction site, which, although often
located adjacent to the building location but at least was still a number of dozens meters away.
The restriction arises because in the operation of the lever, the slope is getting steeper causing the sledge sliding down and the press on the point disappears.

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So one came to let protrude iron pins from the sides of the sled where levers with a were stung underneath. The levers were provided with tiny grooves in order to prevent the sledge sliding down.
Now could a larger swing could be made (3)

However the pins slipped out of the groove as soon as the lever just past the vertical. So one came to drill a hole through the lever so the pin could not prematurely loosen from the lever (4)

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At this method one has to bring the lever back again in his starting position after each movement. However, by making a sidearm one can still make a second swing (5). To ensure that the first and second swing were about the same size the first swing was kept a little smaller. However the solution with a sidearm at the time of the Pharaohs could not be achieved because this requires a welding technology that then still was not available. One could already make rods of iron but not much more. It is important that the tip-over points will be provided with letters in doing so A becomes the first tipping point and B the second.

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One could however execute the same idea in wood, by adding a triangle with base AB. But this triangle (grey) had to be extended (yellow) to be the leverage a whole with the triangle (6). The triangle was thick enough for a hole to be drilled in which the lever fitted . This combination performed the same as the sidearm of (5).

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If one with a triangle can continue once than the swing of course can continued one time more and actually further until one is around. The result is a regular hexagon. It is then necessary to make the lever removable so that he can be inserted in holes to the hexane socket in order to turn it around.
The swing that in Figure 5 was made amounted to 600 due one can opt for fixed angles on the drawing machine.
If one each time had chosen a random angle then there was created an irregular polygon as is shown in (7). This creates a polygonal block with a hole in the middle through which the protruding pin sticks. One can rotate that block by which the block/sledge combination moves on (7).
By providing the flat sides with circle segments, one can smooth the jerkily locomotion (dotted line at the right)

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Here is assumed of adding additions by the same equilateral triangle that produces a regular hexagon and after additions of the same circle segments results in a perfectly round wheel (8)

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Once the wheel was invented one could apply the technique for all kinds of sledging by sliding wheels with one flat side on the pin to slide (9).
Subsequently one lifted the combination stone/sled on by turning the wheel with the lever until one could provide a circle segment to the flat side (10)

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The last step in the development towards easier transport was providing the front of the sled with wheels. Thus was
born the four-wheel vehicle as a means of transport

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The crucial step that led to the wheel was the addition of pins that were supposed to prevent the load would slide down along the lever. It was one of the measures to improve the way of transport

©Max Farjon 2018
Leende, 38, 2018

 

In Chapter 2 of my book you can read:

Quite distinct from what has been said so far, it appears that in the literature, the concept of the "embodied mind" is a known concept. It is described already in 2005 by Shaun Gallagher. The new term expresses that, what happens in the brain, in whole or in part is determined by the body. I will not go into how one has made this connection but I note that my theory resulted in the same conclusion .
 

That last one I'm going to explain further.
(moreover in Netherlands negotiations on this subject are leaving this denotation untranslated). 
The theory that is described in my book is about how intelligence emerged and how it works. This theory is based on the basic thesis that reads as follows: intelligence is the ability of the brain to invent a new manipulation that brings advantage to the manipulator.
 
This statement implies that coming up with new manipulations has a limit. After all if the intelligence invents a manipulation that the animal cannot perform then that idea doesn't make any sense. In this way the body determines what the mind can conceive.
For an ungulate it is very little because he can only scrape away snow to reach grass, licking his newborn young, emit a sound to attract attention and chase away flies with his tail but not much more.  
 
The body of the animal determines that its ability to invent new manipulations is very little. At least compared with other animals and especially the human who because of his hands and vocal cords has a virtually unlimited ability to manipulate and is by this very intelligent.  
 
It's actually also logical that the body has that role because the imagination to novelties has only meaning if the body is able to perform those.
 
To the spirit, there is a certain superiority allotted to the body. Indeed, the spirit arrives at reflections about good and evil, joy and sorrow, the spirit arouses feelings of preference, love and hate, and creation of art in all sorts of guises as possible. But if one considers each of these expressions of the spirit then it appears that also here the body is an indispensable component in order to achieve those expressions.
That is where one comes behind by thinking away the hands and then consider how one can realize these expressions.
 
For example if one will be good to a fellow human then it happens by donating goods or giving preferential treatment. Both are established by switching on the body. Respectively with hands and vocal cords.
©Max Farjon 2018
Leende, 37, 2018

Max Farjon COLUMN
Formerly
I wrote about our shop in Strijp where ham is cut where you stand. But in Heeze, a village nearby, there is also a place where time has stood still: drugstore Van der Linden, next to the flower shop.
A drugstore where you can't pay with ATM, where all amounts are even added by hand.
 
I came there looking for a supplier for the ingredients for my health paste that I have been eating every morning for the past 40 years and with which I tell everyone you live to become a 100 years.  
She, because a woman is in charge there, said that she had only one kind in stock and the rest she would order. So I am now a regular customer because of that 100 years.
That shop still breathes the atmosphere of the past. With its glass bottles with ground stoppers. On the counter there is a neat pile of blank square papers where the additions are done with a pencil. At the end of the day she can still see what is converted.
An older person, like me, is undergoing this as a blessing because you experience something of the past that seemed gone for good and now suddenly still exists.
The younger generation will find this ridiculous and outdated, they join the daily ratrace where you excel if you master the latest trends.
 
Do you know what vlogging is ? No? Then you’re behind the times, no longer with it. 
But those of you who are never have rest, always making sure that you can join in with the latest news. Always working with your mobile phone if you sit or stand somewhere still. Always with those thumbs playing your screen.
From the outside views those ratracers don’t seem at ease. But they do not have a history yet, they are working to build a private lifestyle, to make their own history. But it is also a repetition of what we ourselves have done just as hard. Then with other resources and a tad less pace. So there is nothing wrong with that, it used to be different but was certainly not better. 
©Max Farjon 2017
Leende, 28, 2017

Max Farjon COLUMN
Solidarity
Human has originated from an animal species that looked very like a monkey. It was an animal species that populated Africa South of the Sahara, he lived largely in trees. By a natural phenomenon a small part of that immense population was forced to leave the tree because the forests changed into Savanna's where hardly any trees grow.  
 
He had to do without trees and was forced to move on two legs. Thus the beginning of the current man was born. 
 
The remainder of the population stayed to live in the tree up to the present day.
Those bi-peds were forced to live in a clod to defend himself from predators and the elements. Our predecessors lived formerly also in groups but still much further from each other.  Living in a group is safer because there are more eyes to discover impending doom in time, one came by food easier because what the one does not see, the other does. The members learn from each other the tricks to get something done. In a group you catch prey better.
 
 
One lives there more at ease, although another discomfort comes in its place. Namely the tensions that arise from competition, and status enforcement. Those count, however, less than the chance to lose your hide or to obtain food easier. One indicates this group existence at chimpanzees with a fission-fusion society (there are at the same time separating and binding forces within a group).  
This greater compactness due to the disappearance of trees forced them to new rules of conduct. The old rule: "everyone for himself" caused too much "fission"  in a compact living group.
To survive as a group they had to do more for each other. Altruism arose so pure as a base for survival and not because they found each other autonomously nice and sympathetic. The latter arose because then it appeared that you survive better as a group.
In other words: If within a group too much zeal and envy existed then this was doomed to disappear. They did not manage protective tasks that were necessary on the ground, they were eaten or perished by shortage.

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©Max Farjon 2017
Leende, 35, 2017

Max Farjon COLUMN
U.S. of Europe
In November 2017 a National Language debate took place between 7 language celebrities about the question whether the Anglicization in higher education will take over. This was reported by De Volkskrant in it’s newspaper.
I think this question is too limited, because it is not only in higher education that is increasingly being communicated in English. Everywhere in our society, English words are becoming more commonly used in places where also excellent Dutch words are still available.
 
There is clearly a tendency to use English words and expressions, because it is assumed that the message comes across better.
One can call it a fashion phenomenon but I believe it is unstoppable and will increase in size only.
Is that bad? Do we have to fight that?
If we consider it rationally, certainly not.
Language originated as a tool. By language we could develop better as a technical man because new manipulations (techniques) which we invented since prehistoric times had to be transferred from generation to generation. The high developed society arose by those techniques and which provides us with so much comfort and ease of living.
 
But emotionally we experience it differently. The loss of something familiar always causes pain, in one a little more than the other.  
But the realization that we improve with it will prevail.
Because that will be the case in our part of the world for over a 100 or 200 years when Spaniards and Bulgarians can hold a conversation in a language they have learned from childhood: the European language.
It will be much similar to the current English, but definitely not Oxford-English because that is worn away during the evolution as a superfluous detail.
Only then will a truly United States of Europe also be possible. 
©Max Farjon 2018
Leende, 32, 2018