The Homo Neanderthal is a prehistoric man who lived in Asia and Europe. In addition, there was still the Homo sapiens a slightly later version of man to which we belong. Although the Neanderthal was a slightly less developed stage he had a larger skull with 1500 cc content as opposed to the 1350 that we have.

I'm going to explain to you how, according to me, that came about. 

The brain skull serves as repository for our brain, which broadly speaking exists of nerve cells and mutual wiring. Each cell is connected with thousands of other cells.

We can think, among other things, by exchanging incentives between cells, through that wiring.

I think that during the course of history the thinking ability has initially grown by more nerve cells.  But that thinking ability could also grow by more wiring. So to use the cells more effectively as it were. This also happened in the last phase of the incarnation. This is outwardly noticeable because that phenomenon of more wiring and fewer cells needs less space so the skull could shrink somewhat.  

Since the monkey left the tree some 6 million years ago, the skull has grown from 350 cc to 1500 cc at approximately 200,000 years ago. That growth was necessary to store the growing number of brain cells.

400,000 years ago it started to grow less fast thus when the phenomenon of more wiring had already started. Now we have ended up with 1350 cc.

That all took place in East Africa, Ethiopia and Kenya. There stood the cradle of humanity.

But what was the reason for more wiring?

That was a mutation in hereditary properties where the intelligence did not increase by evolution anymore but by a new feature. That property meant that every time a new technique was added the intelligence rose somewhat and was ready to invent another new technique. (technique broadly speaking here, so, for example, the ability to create sounds with speech organs which have a meaning for the listener). This was accompanied by an increase in wiring. The extraordinary fact was that the adding happened during the growth to maturity. That's the time we daily learn and add new techniques so our intelligence increases with up to 30% of what we have inherited.

The Neanderthal in Europe missed out this mutation, so held his larger skull but was less smart and had to lose out when Homo sapiens appeared in Europe 40,000 years ago .  

© Max Farjon 2017