Everyone knows that black bird the size of a pigeon that you see everywhere, usually very active and often busy in conversation with his ilk: ka, ka, kia, kia.

It is also a very smart bird. If he hits upon a fat bulb on a string on a branch, then he sits down on that branch and then pulls up the string with his beak and grabs the loop with one leg and holds that against the branch. He repeats this a few times until the bulb is within its reach for consumption.

How does he get there? In the countryside, far from the people, he does not meet that situation, from childhood he's not used to pick up fat bulbs.  

I think I know the answer.

I have kept myself busy with intelligence, another word for cleverness.

I've found that all the animals are in the possession of a property, which once originated far back in prehistoric times. That property, according to my theory about intelligence, is: intelligence is the ability of an animal to devise a new manipulation that provides him advantage. Manipulation here is to hold an object, distort, or move it.  

For example, in a distant past a squirrel-like animal started to live in the tree. To move easily through the canopies he developed grabbing organs on his limbs, he became a monkey, this is called evolution.

But then he discovered a new manipulation with advantage: he could also pick out fruits from the tree which he previously bit. And the benefit was that he could get hold of fruits that were previously inaccessible.  

It is also clear that animals that are well able to manipulate can apply their intelligence better.

A cow and a horse can manipulate very little, they do not have the attributes for it.

But a jackdaw has a beak and toes on his feet where he can grab things with it, he can manipulate very well. He can therefore devise very good new manipulations and that is the reason he could get within reach of fatbulbs he never saw before.

Note that a beak and a toe cannot think.

Info? Read www.withouthandsnointelligence.nl and check out the You-tube film.

© Max Farjon 2018