Extension 12- manipulationsof the chimpanzees living in the wild

 Chapter 6 is dedicated to the calibration of intelligence theory on the chimpanzee living in the wild. In order to do this I perform in this chapter an inventory of observed manipulations such as those can be established from various publications.

 At the Chimp there are of four types of manipulations which emerged by three types of intelligence. This context is as follows:

technique  intelligence

object manipulation

communication intelligence.

body manipulation

air manipulation

social intelligence.

mind manipulation

 

In this extension are listed the 4 types of observed manipulations. They are detected in the literature.

Each list gets a column with serial numbers preceded by a two-letter combination to indicate the kind of manipulation:

Adition of two letters to serial numbers of manipulations

Description of manipulation

ob from object

Object manipulating is the replacing, picking up, distorting of objects or matter

bo from body

Body manipulating is manipulating the appearance of the own body to create body language

ai from air

Air manipulating is manipulating of the air, that the lungs are pushing along the speech organs, into spoken language.

mi from mind

Mind manipulating is manipulating the mind of a congener to attune him to be benevolent to provide a service

In paragraph 6b I explained that Whiten has become the main source.

 

a. Technique intelligence

 

Observations of Whiten

The table 12-1, which begins below and is derived from the work of  Whiten3, 1999 and Whiten2, 2001, contains manipulations observed.

I have indicated in the last column to what kind of manipulation I have it assigned to. So this is entirely my opinion that has prevailed here because Whiten, of course, was not involved.

Explanation table:

  • From the nine stations is Go(mbe) chosen for further use, see section 6b end. That is indicated by the thick column lines and in dimmed texts for the other stations
  • The indications in the last column indicates whether it refers the object-or body- manipulations (and 1x mi(nd)-manipulation according to the insight of the author The latter is used for paragraph b Communication-intelligence and c Social-intelligence.
  • The two-letter designations in the heads of the colored columns are indications for the nine monitoring stations. In Figure 17 (in book) they can be found
  • symbols for the degree of observed manipulations:

C = common

H = is seen repeatedly but is not common

+ = is observed but not to the extent of

C and H

--= is absent in observations and there can be given no explanation for this

e = absent but there can be explanation because of local conditions or ecological barriers

e? = phenomenon is not written down or there were not enough observation opportunities.

(--) = status not yet established.

Serial nr.

description (texts in grey not relevant for us)

As

Bs

Tai

Lo

Ma

Mk

Go

Kib

Bd

Kind of

mani-

pulation

1

Investigory probe (probe and sniff)

(--)

H

C

(--)

H

H

C

+

(--)

ob

2

Play start (invite play holding stem in mouth).

+

+

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

mi

3

Drag branche (drag large branche in display)

(--)

H

C

H

C

C

C

H

H

     bo

4

Leaf sponge (leaf mass used as sponge)

(--)

C

C

+

+

e

C

C

C

ob

5

Branche –clasp (clasp branche above, groom)1)

H

H

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

ob

6

Branch-shake (to attract attention, court)

H

C

C

H

C

C

C

H

C

bo

7

Buttress-beat (drum on buttress of tree)

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

bo

8t/m23

 

2)

                 

24

Met een tak algen aan wateroppervlakte naar zich toe halen

(--)

C

e

(--)

e

e

e

e

e

 

25,26

 

2)

                 

27

Food-pound onto wood (smash food)

C

C

C

(--)

--

--

C

e?

H

ob

28

Food-pound onto other (such as Stone)

H

--

H

(--)

--

--

C

e?

--

ob

29

Met stuk hout noot stuk slaan op houten aambeeld

e

--

C

--

e

e

--

e?

e

 

30

Met stuk hout noot stuk slaan op stenen aambeeld

e

--

--

--

--

--

e?

e

 

31

Met steen als hamer noot stuk slaan op houten aambeeld

e

+

C

--

e

e

--

e?

e

 

32

Met steen als hamer noot stuk slaan op stenen aambeeld.

e

C

C

--

--

--

--

e?

e?

 

33

Idem als 28 t/m 32 met andere materialen.

e

--

H

--

--

--

--

e?

e

 

34

Palmbladstengel gebruiken om kuil in palmkruin te stampen (nadat centrale palmbladen zijn uitgetrokken)

e

C

--

--

e?

e?

--

e?

e?

 

35

Club (strike forcefully with stick)

(--)

+

H

(--)

+

--

H

--

--

bo

36

Hoofdnerf van blad in tunnel van termietheuvel steken om aldus mieren te vangen

H

+

e

e?

--

C

--

e

e?

 

37

Termite-fish using non-leaf materials

H

--

e

e?

--

C

C

e

e?

ob

38

Stok of stengel in gangen van  mierennest steken, de stok beladen met mieren worden met lippen afgelikt

H

+

--

C

C

C

+

--

--

 

39

Ant-dip-wipe (manually wipe ants of wand).4)

H

+

--

--

--

--

C

--

--

ob

40

Idem als 39 mar met lippen mieren afstrijken en opeten

--

C

C

--

--

--

+

--

--

 

41

Fluid-dip (use probe to extract fluids). 

H

--

C

C

H

H

C

H

--

ob

42

Met stok bijen uit nest lokken, verlammen en opeten.

(--)

--

C

(--)

--

+

--

--

--

 

43

Met stokje merg uit bot peuteren

(--)

--

C

(--)

--

--

--

--

--

 

44

Lever open (stick used to enlarge entrance)

(--)

--

H

C

--

--

C

--

--

ob

45

Expel/stir (stickexpels or stirs insects)

(--)

--

C

(--)

H

H

C

e?

--

ob

46

Een paar bladeren afplukken en deze gebruiken als zitmatje, blijkbaar ter bescherming tegen natte grond

(--)

+

H

--

--

--

--

+

--

 

47

Bebladerde tak gebruiken om insecten weg te jagen

(--)

--

--

(--)

--

--

+

e

H

 

48

Self-tickle (tickle self using objects)

(--)

--

--

(--)

--

--

H

--

--

ob

49

Aimed-throw (throw object directionally)  5)

+

C

C

(--)

C

--

C

+

+

bo

50

Leaf-napkin (leaves used to clean body)

+

--

+

(--)

+

--

C

C

C

ob

51

Met plantenblad debben in wond, en resultaat op blad bekijken, soms blad opeten

(--)

--

+

(--)

--

--

+

C

--

 

528)

Leaf-groom (intense “grooming”of leaves

(--)

--

--

--

C

C

C

C

+

ob

53

Blader aan de stengel tussen de tanden doortrekken waarbij een scheurend geluid ontstaat bedoeld om aandacht te krijgen

(--)

C

C

--

C

C

--

H

C

 

54

Idem als 53 maar nu met vingers van andere hand i.p.v. mond

(--)

--

--

--

+

--

--

H

C

 

55x

 Leaf-strip (rip leaves off stemms thread)

(--)

+

--

--

+

--

H

H

--

ai

56

Leaf-squash (squash ectoparasite6) on leaf)

(--)

--

--

(--)

(--)

(--)

H

--

--

ob

57

(gevangen) ectoparasiet op blad, rustend op handpalm,  leggen en inspecteren dan opeten of weggooien

(--)

--

--

(--)

(--)

(--)

+

--

C

 

58

Vinger gebruiken om ectoparasiet op arm te pletten

(--)

--

C

(--)

--

--

+

--

--

 

59

Twee chimpansees grijpen elkaars hand met uitgestrekte armen boven hun hoofd tijdens het elkaar kuizen met de andere hand

(--)

--

H

H

C

C

--

C

--

 

60x

Knuckle-knock (knock to attract attention).

(--)

+

C

(--)

C

C

H

--

--

bo

61

Geraas maken door takken, struiken en dergelijke naar beneden te trekken en weer los te laten.

(--)

--

--

H

e?

e?

--

--

--

 

62

Al zittende op tak daar met de hand tegen aan slaan om aandacht te trekken

(--)

C

C

(--)

+

--

--

--

C

 

63

Al zittende een gebladerde tak of grasstengels door de hand trekken en daarmee een opvallend geluid maken om aandacht te trekken

(--)

C

--

(--)

H

--

+

H

--

 

64

Begroeiing plattrappen om aandacht van paarpartner te trekken

(--)

H

--

(--)

C

--

--

--

C

 

65

Rain dance (slow display at start of rain)

(--)

--

H

(--)

C

C

C

C

H

bo

numbers

object

           

14

     

lbody

           

7

     

air

           

1

     

mind

           

1

     

total

10

15

29

10

17

16

23

16

15

 

 

Notes:

  • In the English language, the word "groom" is used where we usually say “vlooien” (= removing fleas), monkeys have no fleas, but there is a search for flakes and other iniquities, therefore our preference for "kuisen"= cleaning,

(obsolete word for cleaning)

This aims for a comfort posture and therefore is an object-manipulation

  • for the observations at these manipulations there exist no C and H-qualification
  • Not used
  • Whiten writes "Ant-dip-wipe". He uses the word "fish" for catching termites by which stems are inserted in the tunnels of a nest . I suppose this is “dip”” a stalk in a column ants. The safari ant can pull up in massive columns, with millions at the same time, scientific name Dorylus (WIKI)
  • this manipulation had no intention to catch prey by injury or killing, it was an expression with the message you are not welcome, get lost.
  • animal parasite that lives on the surface of animals, like a louse.

Whiten has assigned a qualification to the manipulations, as shown in the second column, that defines the extent of occurrence. These are the symbols C, H, + etc.  that are listed at the top of the table. I have chosen to include only the manipulations with C and H in our analysis, because of the vague status of the other manipulations. There are 23 of them, they are marked by the gray shading.

At the bottom of the table I added some summations  and you will see that the stations Taï and Gombe stand out with the most manipulations with the qualification C and H. 

You will see that even in each station still exist significant differences in the arsenal of manipulations.

Now a moment to explain a process

In the allocation of Whitens ' observations to kinds of manipulations it appeared that many "ordinary" everyday object manipulations were not yet present in the collection.

Probably because they are so common in the Chimp populations in Africa that they were not relevant for Whiten's study. For our purposes, they are of course important though. We have them collected from the literature, they are the numbers ob15-through ob18 in the collection table 12-2. 

In addition there are a number of manipulations also common whose description is not encountered in the literature. They are either naturally or manipulation that seem to have escaped from the attention of the observers. They are the numbers ob19 through ob24. They are taken from You-tube movies.

In total 10 manipulations derived from other sources.

In the summary for object-manipulations that follows here they are added (table 12-2)

We may assume that the group in Gombe also applies at part of the added manipulations (e.g. nest building, picking fruits and putting in mouths, small particles picking up with lips) but with others it is not sure.

So we cannot quite realize completely the aim of manipulations from one group, it comes to the manipulations ob21-ob23.

We must keep this in mind when drawing conclusions in Chapter 6. 

Final list of object manipulations observed

The manipulations under the thick stripe are added by me

Table 12-2 Object manipulations in Gombe

Serial nr.

Source

Description

ob1

Whiten11)

Investigory probe (probe and sniff)

ob2

Whiten4

Leaf sponge (leaf mass used as sponge)

ob3

Whiten5

Branche –clasp (clasp branche above, groom) 2)

ob4

 

Food-pound onto wood (smash food) 3)

Whiten28

I Food-pound onto other (such as Stone)

ob5

Whiten37

Insert stick or stem in tunnel of termite hill in order to  catch ants

ob6

Whiten39

Ant-dip-wipe (manually wipe ants of wand). 4)

ob7

Whiten41

Fluid-dip (use probe to extract fluids).. 

ob8

Whiten44

Lever open (stick used to enlarge entrance)

ob9

Whiten45

Expel/stir (stickexpels or stirs insects)

ob10

Whiten48

Self-tickle (tickle self using objects)

ob11

Whiten50

Leaf-napkin (leaves used to clean body)

ob12

Whiten52

Leaf-groom (intense “grooming”of leaves

ob13

Not used

 

ob14

Whiten56

Leaf-squash (squash ectoparasite 5) on leaf) 

ob15

Egenter5)

Bending branche in circular shape6)

ob16

Egenter5)

Snapping branch 6)

ob17

Egenter5)

Braiding branches6)

ob18

Egenter5)

Picking leafy ends of branches and arrange it to  a mattres6)

ob19

not used

 

ob20

own view

Pick fruits or leaves and consume them 7)

ob21

own view

To pick up small particles with lips to remove them or to eat them7)

ob22

own view8)

To cut branch at desired length, teeth to be used as scissor. @

ob23

own view8)

Tear-off bark of branch with teeth

ob24

own view t8) 9)

Use the molars to crush and cleavage end of twig, in length of 15 to 20 cm,. The twig is pulled at the tip by one hand through the almost  locked jaw. This operation is repeated several times so that there is a created a long-haired brush

Notes:

Note 2 is the same  to note 1 of table 12-1

  • Number behind a name is serial number in Whiten- publication
  • In the English language, the word "groom" is used where we usually say “vlooien” (= removing fleas) monkeys have no fleas, but there is a search for flakes and other iniquities, therefore our preference for "kuisen"= cleaning, used formerly.
  • Writen writes “food item smashed open on hard wooden surface”
  • The safari ant can advance in massive columns, with millions at the same time, scientific name Dorylus (WIKI)
  • this researcher has studied the construction of chimpanzee nests and described same.
  • These manipulations are done when building sleeping nest in a tree, in a table of extension 13 paragraph b. this is worked out (see th15 through17). It happens in high tempo, a nest is ready in 2 to 3 minutes.
  • These manipulations have been added because they do not occur in the table of Whiten, probably too trivial to mentionwhile they are just as important, in this consideration, as the rest.
  • These are manipulations that are done in the preparation of a dipstick which is goeing to serve for catching ants. The acts follow one another at breakneck speed , in 5 to 7 seconds the dipstick is prepared that way. You can watch them on You-tube movies after Googling with You-tube Chimpanzee Ant Fishing as a search term (this also applies to note 6).

These manipulations are not reported by Whiten in Gombe, nor make the movies clear where they were recorded.. However, I believe that these essential manipulations for the preparation of dipsticks is mastered by all colonies.

  • Soldier ants of a colony clasp themselves to threatening objects. This is the base for the trapping technique that chimpanzees apply: they stick a culm or twig througj the access opening of a nest and pull back slowly. The ants attached are stripped off with the lips or fingers of one hand and consumed. Some chimpanzees have discovered that a jagged end delivers more ants (the ants can sink their teeth even easier into and more objects)

b. Communication intelligence

 

Body manipulations

The selected manipulations from the Whitentabel turn out 8 of them to fit into the category:body- manipulations, they are 3, 6, 7/35, 49, 60, 65 en 55 in table 12-3 for body-manipulations added under bo2 through bo 7 an d bo13.

We now have to realize that Whiten was not trying to collect body- manipulations on behalf of sign language.

That is why I searched for literature that specifically deals with body-manipulations, so sign language.

I have found that at Anna Roberts, 2012. It's about a study on Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, the same kind as in Gombe, so fairly similar to the group in Gombe. She describes 9 body manipulations. But some are not certified, they interpret a message which is dependent on the circumstances.

For our purposes there are but 3 left, which I have added under bo8-bo10.

In addition, the chimpanzees have a repertoire of facial expressions with which they show their counterparts something of their intentions or mood. Think of, for example, of: "open mouth with bared teeth " or "a pressed lips".

There has been done much research into that and there has been recorded systematically also which ways of facial expressions exist.

However on the meaning that it has for congeners is still much uncertainty.

Also, many of those facial expressions are accompanied with emitting sounds and with other body manipulations for example: bared teeth and dragging branch both expression of aggressiveness.

All things considered I come to only 3 grimaces that really stand alone, so do not operate in combination with other body- and air- manipulations. I have taken them from http://janegoodallug.org/wp/communication (bo11 through bo13). Because they come from Jane Goodall I assume that they are also derived from observations in Gombe.

Serial nr.

reference

Description

bo2

Whiten 3

Drag branch (drag large branch in display)

bo3

Whiten 6

Branch-shake (to attract attention, court)

bo4

Whiten 7

Buttress-beat (drum on buttress of tree)

Whiten 35

Club (strike forcefully with stick)

bo5

Whiten 49

Aimed- throw (throw object directionally)

bo6

Whiten 60

Knuckle-knock (knock to attract attention)..

bo7

Whiten 65

Rain dance (slow display at start of rain)

bo8

Not used

 

bo9

Not used

 

bo10

Roberts 

backward sweep, travel

bo11

http://janegoodallug.org/wp/communication/

Grin with mouth closed or slightly open. Associated with submissive behavior and fear

bo12

Grin with open mouth. Non-aggressive physical contact with other chimpanzee or when threatened by a superior or other species a chimpanzee fears

bo 13

Open mouth, teeth covered by lips glaring. Threatening a subordinate or other species that is not greatly feared

 

Air manipulations

For this we can not go to Whiten.

There is committed quite some research to the kind of sounds that chimpanzees produce.

It turns out that in Gombe there are no research results available about voice sounds.

The most recent research is of Katie Slocombe and Klaus Zuberbühler that is included in a chapter of the book The Mind of the Chimpanzee. This book from 2010 is a collection of articles by multiple authors edited by Elizabeth v. Lonsdorf ea.

One chapter shows the results of observations from 2003 to 2006 in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda, see Bud in map of Fig. 17.

So I have to do a concession to my commitment to involve all manipulations from Gombe, although the species is the same : Pan schweinfurthii.

In the English language exists the word “vocalization”. There is no Dutch equivalent while still at treatises on language there is need for it.

One could describe it as a sound that emerges  by air pressed out by the lungs through  throat and mouth is and that is characterized by duration, pitch, and sound variation.

I'm going to identify this concept as “voice sound” instead of “ vocalization”

This is very common. In our texts you need to interpret it as a specific voice sound.

You can find the air-manipulations from Budongo in the table below. 

You see now many more columns than in the previous ones that  had only two. This is because of the difficulty to express sounds in words,  there is column 2 and 3 used for. It is also necessary to mention the meaning separately which are the columns 4 and 5, in the previous tables it followed from the description.

For C5 column 2 and 4 are brought together in column 2 of table C5-3 and column 5 to column 3 of table C5-3

1

Se-rial

nr.

2

Call type

3

Acoustic description

1)

4

Circumstances of production

5

Function

ai1

Pant-hoot

Species-typical long distance vocalization with four distinct phases: 1. low frequency hoo calls, 2. Increasingly loud panted hoo calls, 3.screams or roars and 4. Resembles the buildup phase

Who? Mainly adult males. When? During display, travel, arrival at feeding sites, in response to hearing to hearing other chimpanzees

Long-distance spacing function; announces the location and the location and general activity of individuals over a large area.

ai2

Whimper

A series of soft low-frequency hoo calls often produced with a pour expression

Distressed individuals, especially juveniles when lost or facing the mother’s refusal to carry or feed them

Distress signal, to which other individuals will sometimes respond in a manner that alleviates the caller’s distress (retrieval of lost juvenile or sharing of food)

ai3

Scream

Loud high-pitched, harmonic vocalization.

Screams grade into squeaks whimpers and barks.

During agonistic encounters, by victims and by aggressors of equal or lower rank to the victim. Alarm at encounter with leopard.

Agonistic screams function to recruit aid. Tantrum screams may work as noxious, aversive stimuli to change the recipient’s behavior to the caller’s advantage. Screams given in situations of extreme alarm can attract individuals to the caller from considerable distances

ai4

Squeak

High-pitched short calls often given in fast succession to form short bouts

Who? Mainly subordinates and females.

When? Usually when elicited by mild threats of aggression

Signal of the caller’s distress which can elicit reassurance behavior from others. The function of copulation squeaks, is currently unclear although they are likely to play a role in inciting sexual competition.

ai5

 Bark

Sharp loud calls with abrupt onsets. Barks grade into screams (Lu3)

Who? Females more than males. When? In situations of agonistic encounters

Abstract: Their function is unclear

ai6

Waa-bark

Bark variant in which “waa” is clear

During observation of an agonistic interaction, as threat to other species, by victims after the aggressor has retreated

Abstract: a lack of clear responses to these calls by recipients makes defining their function difficult

ai7

Cough

Low frequency vocalization similar to  a grunt (Lu8) but rarely voiced

Who? Dominant individuals. When? Given as a mild threat by an annoyed individual to a subordinate. It is  often accompanied by a threat gesture such as ground slap or an arm-raise

The cough serves as a warning and is usually sufficient to secure the termination of the undesirable behavior in the  subordinate.

ai8

Grunt

Short, soft low-frequency calls given singularly or in short bouts. Grunts grade intorough grunts, barks, and pant-grunts

During resting and the making of nests

Grunts are poorly understood, but they may function to promote behavioural synchrony in affiliate individuals

ai9

Rough grunt

An umbrella term that describes the vocalizations produced by individuals and females when approaching, collecting, or consuming food.  

Produced as individuals approach and climb feeding trees.

“Food call” to attract other chimpanzees to a feeding site.

ai10

Pant-grunt

Noisy low frequency grunts or barks, panted in a rapid rhythm with audible energy in both inhalation and exhalation.

Who? Given by subordinate individuals to dominant individuals. When? When greeting a domi8antor  signaling subordinate to an approachingagressi9ve chimpanzee

Sign of submission vital for maintaining dominance relationships between group members.

ai11

Pant

Unvoiced, soft, low-frequency sounds. Temporal patterning is regular and rapid. Panting may grade into pant-grunting

Who? Mainly adults When? As part of a greeting or during grooming. I this context the caller  habitually presses their open mouth against the other individual  whilst panting. Panting also occurs males during copulation and tends to be loudest in that context

Seems to be an affiliatory signal in the grooming or greeting context

ai12

Huu/ alarm call

Tonal calls with most energy at onset and rise and fall in frequency over the call. Huu calls can be loud, sometimes carrying over a hundred meters

Who? Surprised or frightened individuals. When? In response to unusual events. The Budongo chimpanzees who never been recorded to produce “ waa” calls also gave these as alarm calls in resonse buffalo, pythons.

Alarm calls, which generally elicit approach and alert scanning behavior from recipients. The attract othet individuals and alert them to dangers in the environment.

ai13

Laughter

Noisy , low-frequency grunts and moans delivered in a n irregular rhythm, reminiscent of hoarse, wheezing human laughter. The most discrete call type in the chimpanzee repertoire, as it rarely grades into any other call type.

Who? Predominantly infants and juveniles. When? In play contests and particularly during Physical-contact play.

Primarily a reaction to physical contact in a play context, but it may also function tom extend and maintain play bouts (Matsusaka 2004)

ai14

Rip leaves off stemms thread2)

     

 

  • The description of the sounds is in itself quite a task.. In the third column you will find a description
  • This is the only sound that is produced not by the throat, it's like tearing a perforated piece of paper that makes apparently a striking cracks. I think that was the reason that it was listed as a separate act by Whiten. Since Whiten does not report what the function and circumstances were I have left the remaining columns blank.
  1. c. Social intelligence

From publications of Frans de Waal (De Waal 2010 and 2013) one can derive that monkeys in captivity manipulate extensively each other's mind  and thus must be involved with benevolence exciters*, which did grow their intelligence.

However I have found little in the literature about this for chimpanzees living in the wild.

Also one knows from many publications (among other things: http://www.janegoodall.ca/about-chimp-so-like-us.php#Intelligence) that chimpanzees exhibit human emotions such as kissing, embracing, touching hands and swaggering. These acts are too general to act as a b.e., they will have been used certainly to support a real b.e.

If I look at the Whiten-and Roberts table of observed manipulations than can I derive the b.e.’s below.

I do not rule out that a thorough search in the literature there are going to be discovered even more observed mind-manipulations.

*this concept has been described in 5g, abbreviation: b.e.

 

Table 12-5 Mind manipulations

mi1=Whi2

Invitation to game by juvenile, runs to and from intended playmate with branch or other object in mouth or hand.

mi2=Roberts

Extend cup shaped hand, begging for food

mi3=Roberts

Lifting arm, invitation to come and groom