Extension 13- Calibration intelligence theory to the operations of the chimpanzees living in the wild

In extension 12 has been  drawn up a list of manipulations with which we get started. It concerns the arsenals to manipulations that for the most part apply to the Group of chimpanzees which lives in the Gombe National Park in Tanzania,. 

Of each manipulation I investigate how and when they are created, using the theory for intelligence,. 

This happens only with one goal: to prove that the intelligence theory is plausible. I do this by supplying an explanation for the existence for each of the 50 manipulations. It is, as they say in England: the proof of the pudding is in the eating. 

One can consider this exercise as the research that usually is committed to show the likely correctness of a newly launched rule or law in a field. The field in this case, the behavioral teachings of the chimpanzee living in the wild.

An arsenal has been built up by successively adding a manipulation by means of. a creatio. But that had to have an advantage. The latter is in most cases self evident, if not, it is reported separately.

The processing happens in order of the kind of intelligence, so in succession of: technique-, communication- and social intelligence

 

  1. a. Technique intelligence

The emergence of observed manipulations of the current chimpanzees, living in the wild

I'm going to attempt an exercise for each manipulation whereby the factors which lead to an explanation are termed  in a table. 

The table is divided vertically into two halves, a thick stripe indicates the separation.

On the left of the thick line you will find a list of observed manipulations of chimpanzees, thus from Extension 12.

Here I have figured out an appropriate sitcode. Just remember that each manipulation for daily use is activated by a sitcode. Thus the observed image is a kind of pin coded which looks for the associated printed circuit board (PCB) and activates it.  The PCB contains the commands to the muscles that realize the manipulation described in column 2.

When creating a sitcode one must figure out how the observed situation should look like leading to the manipulation with which  the animal is busy. 

Example: the manipulation is: Insert stick or stem in tunnel of termite hill, thus to catch ants. The situation that brings him to this end could read: opening in termites nest, but that assumes knowledge of the arrangement of an ant nest and moreover not behind every opening ants get around. Therefore I add to it: where termites walk in and out.

However not always a sitcode will lead to action. When  a chicken has a full craw she will not crab backwards where a sitcode directs her normally when she arrives on loose earth.

In addition to the sitcode there should be a present an  urge (in this case, hunger) that gives the sitcode the green light.

An exception to this whole is Creatio social which does not generate manipulations but

gi´s goodwillinducers and is not initiated by a sitcode but by the Soul, see section 5 g.

 

To the right of the thick stripe is indicated how each manipulation arose, so how that came about for the very first time.

Here was intelligence needed. There are four types: Creatio PlusCreatio Abstract, Creatio trial-and-error and. Creation random (Creatio social will be dealt with separately)

The resulting manipulations were still sometimes complemented by Creatio circuit board.

In order to indicate for each of the  manipulations which Creatio is used and how it is applied, you will find three columns respectively for Creatio trial-and-error, Creatio plus/random  (combination of two) and Creatio abstract. If there is a manipulation complemented by Creatio PCB then that will be shown in the relevant column.

In the relevant column I place bold letters at the top of each piece of text that supplies an explanation.

Those letters can be found in the chart below:

Creatio plus

The ability to apply a known manipulation b (instead of manipulation a) in a situation that is different from the situation in which that manipulation so far was applied. This creates a new manipulation c which supplies advantage.

See Index sheet 1 in book for a and b

This Creatio also works if a well-known manipulation d appears applicable in a new (different) situation, so without replacing  another manipulation

 

This creates a new manipulation e which supplies advantage

Creatio abstract

The ability of the brain to distort mentally an imagination q to picture p, whereby, with existing knowledge, directly or in the long term, there can be derived a manipulation r with advantage

Creatio trial-and-Error

The ability of the brain, in an intangible situation y, to perform some random manipulations designed to satisfy the curiosity or urge and then from there to discover from these manipulations that z benefits.

Creation random

To recognize possible advantage in a object manipulation k, which emerged by chance. The result is a new manipulation l that offers advantage.

The letter indicates which bit of the Creatio applies.

To explain the emergence of a new manipulation I use one of these four Creatio's.

Which of the four creatio's is applicable for the explanation of a new manipulation follows from the decision diagram below.

Of course Creatio random is not a part of it. The manipulation arises unexpectedly as follows: the manipulation k arises by playfulness or boredom. This is recognized as one that brings benefit in certain situations. For example: he grubs thoughtnessly or by playfulness with a stick in the ground.

Thereby roots are coming to the surface, now it becomes a conscious manipulation l: digging up roots.

Can a common manipulation a be replaced by a better b that arose in another situation but also works here? (there is manipulation c)

 
 

yes

no

 

It is called

Creatio  plus

Can the incoming situation p be distorted to situation q that delivers an appropriate manipulation z?

 
   

yes

no

 

It is called

Creatio abstract

Creatio trial-and-error: the incoming situation y tickles of arbitrary attemps of which one yields the coveted target z

 
   

 I give three examples, the ob-numbering is according the table which appear after the examples:

ob11-Using plant leaves to wipe spots on body. 

Here the sitcode is: "attachment of dirt on fur". The habit to remove the dirt with a gag of leaves arose when he ran once through dense foliage and noticed that dirt from his fur was gone by the friction of the foliage. I introduce now  Creatio abstract to explain ob11.

When he found again dirt on his fur  this creatio took action by an urge from his  Soul (I do not want this dirt) The dirty place p found no match in the arsenal ribbon, q. Under the influence of his experience his intelligence  distorted that image to one where he held a tuft of leaves in his hand. r Now he grabs a handful of leaves and he sweeps the dirt away with it,.

 

ob20- Picking fruits or leaves with hand and  consuming

One may assume that this custom had arisen already at a predecessor of the chimpanzee.

He was accustomed to bite leaves and fruit with the mouth a. The motive to the onset of this manipulation, thus the sitcode , was: "fruits and leaves to far out of reach to bite with mouth "

Chimp used his hands already as grab organ to move himself through the canopies of the trees.

His intelligence led him  to pull the branches, with fruits and leaves, which were too far away, towards him in such a way that they were ready-to-eat.  A well-known manipulation (branches grabbing b) was applied in a different situation (Creatio plus) and there arose a new manipulation c. By means of Creatio circuit board this manipulation went to one where he picked  fruits and leaves and put to his mouth. 

This is an example in which this creatio evolved during  many generations

In the table to the right of the thick stripe the same is shown for ob20.  

ob21- To pick up small particles with lips  to remove it or to eat it.  .

The motive, so the sitcode is: "unwanted very small object".

I go back to the time he did not yet master this technique.

The sitcode did not find a match on the arsenal- ribbon, and the distortion according to Creatio abstract didn't work either.

Then came Creatio Trial-and-error in action.

Creatio Trial-and-error:

The ability of the brain, in an intangible situation y, to perform some random manipulations designed to satisfy the curiosity or urge and then from there to discover from these manipulations that z benefits.

That impelled him to experiments as follows: with thumb and curved index finger (he did not master the pencil grip), to wipe with hand and to pick up with lips, that last one worked though and is z and also ob21

So much for the examples.

In these examples, explaining is drawn out in detail. However, the same thing happens here in the tables reduced to letters. 

I give per column still explanation:

  1. 1. Serial number acts as a reference number, the initials are those of the name of the appropriate manipulation, ob for "object" etc..
  1. 2. Manipulation, description as mentioned in the source, in the texts indicated with the letter m. In the table abbreviated to man. The description according to the source is not always clear what is aimed with the manipulation. In those cases, the author has added a goal, at his own discretion.

Recognizable by the brackets around this text

 

  1. 3. Image of 2. Sometimes drawings are made with a You-tube movie as a base, not a single drawing is fantasized (with exception of ob19)
  1. 4. Sitcode, the existence of this I've figured out, it is a necessary attribute, in the table indicated with sit.

It has to fit at both the routine implementation of a manipulation, to the left of the thick stripe, but also in the process that leads to the same manipulation, to the right of the thick line. 

Keep in mind that this is a very necessary condition making this exercise to serve its objective.

5 . Creatio trial-and-error

 

  1. 6. Creatio plus and Creatio chance

 

  1. 7. Creatio abstract
  1. 8. Period of creation. I distinguish here 3 periods in which I place the creation of a manipulation.

It turns out that this is only possible for object-manipulations. I do this on the basis of the power and dexterity required for this manipulation.

For example: on the basis of its body weight and estimated dexterity the Proconsul could probably still not crack a note with a stone, but he had the knack to fish ants with a twig. This consideration delivers a cross for each manipulation in the selected period.

Sofar the explanation

I ask your special consideration for a particular facet in this table. The behaviors to the right of the thick stripe would give the impression that they happened just like that. 

In reality the creation of each new manipulation took millions of years to complete. It went in fits and starts, they were lost and had to be reinvented, they started imperfect, passed thousands of generations for a new manipulation finally had become commonplace.

Just remember that no one instructed them which direction they had to follow. Only their own intelligence directed  their behavior but they did not see themselves a major line. The direction up was dictated by the iron law: survival of the fittest. This is effective but works very slowly. I speak about intangible long development times. A thousand years is for our understanding a very long time but a thousand times that amount is unimaginable. But still those are the periods involved in these processes. I ever heard once the following metaphor told by a wise man: a little bird came each year its beak grinding on a boulder. That boulder worn off each time a bit. The wise man said, when the rock is worn away completely, then there has passed one day of eternity. 

In the following three tables is explained.the emergence of the manipulations, by the application of one of the creatio's.

Table 13-1 Object manipulations of a colony chimpanzees in Gombe Tanzania

The content of this table is taken from table of Extension 12 paragraph d, it is the part to the left of the thick stripe.  Of the 24 manipulations there are only 14 recorded really in Gombe. The other 10 are added by me because the observers have not included everyday behaviors such as grooming each other and building nests. 

At the moving and functioning of an animal only a small part is dedicated to object

manipulations. I mean moving, breaking, throwing of objects. That kind of behaviors are caused by intelligence.

A second characteristic of manipulation, according to my theory, is that, it should offer an advantage,  it should result in something that helps maintain or improve the level of prosperity.

So walking, flying, breathing, drinking, eating and giving birth to young do not belong to this . There was no intelligence involved, they are functions that already exists since the basic cell.

I would like to point out that, in this contex, some special techniques such as bringing drinks and food in the mouth belong to manipulations, in our sense,. 

Also , lips, tongue and teeth sometimes are used for other purposes than those for which they were created. Think of monkeys grooming each other: picking up motes with their lips. So the eating organs can also be manipulators.

Photos could be obtained but for a few manipulations, the drawings are from my hand and token from You Tube movies, see Extension 20 for source reference of photo’s.

There is an extensive biography with notes which explain  meaning of words in the table. Nuts in red, note-text to the end of table.

Table 131

Table 132

Table 133

Table 134

Table 135

 Table 136