Extension 1- Programmed live, the brain model
All animals from high to low do have bodies with which they can manipulate to some extent.
Birds can build nests, sticklebacks too. However, horses or cows have been very limited in that respect. They can pull grass with tongue and lips and with their feet scraping snow to reach grass.
But manipulating can also happen with air. The vocal cords can manipulate a flow of air in the larynx of animals in such a way that there arises sound. . And that ability to manipulate can grow into variations in sound giving them a meaning for the listener and communication becomes possible Also dolphins and orcas can manipulate, they bring water to vibration with an organ in their blowhole and can communicate with each other by varying the vibrations.
The characteristic of manipulation at animals is that it brings something into being which is indispensable for the animal to its survival.
Each adult animal has a measured number of manipulations. I call this metered amount the arsenal of manipulations. Birds have a larger arsenal than cattle.
Animals receive a portion of that arsenal along at birth, so is inherited. A baby monkey clings "naturally" onto the coat of his mother who goes on stage, the baby does not have to learn. A chicken scratching backwards as they land on soft earth, in its search for food. It is a built-in reflex that is fixed in the genes.
In addition to the innate manipulations, there are manipulations that are learned. A young lion must learn how to effectively kills prey. He plays with his mother and siblings. Seemingly useless antics but increasingly effective direction squeezing the throat of a prey.
Animals have only their full arsenal when they are mature.
b. Brain model
A manipulation is achieved by muscles that for example do move limbs, lips, vocal chords, beaks. The muscles do that in a specific way and in a specific sequence.
The muscles receive nerve impulses from the brain which establish this.. The simple taking up of a twig by a bird to build a nest requires already the involvement of many muscles in head and neck of the beast snuggle down twigs so that there arises a small bowl.
Which nerve impulses arise not by a thought process but by a combination of urges and reflexes.
Urges include for instance hunger-thirst, urge to mate and care for self preservation. A reflex is a response to what an animal perceives with his senses.
The above mentioned chicken goes in search of food because of a hunger feeling (urge) and arrives on loose earth. That picture of loose earth impels her to crabbing backwards(reflex). That crabbing backwards brings seeds and grubs to the surface, she experiences an advantage. It is not an invention because she crabs also when I strew seed on loose earth. If they are not hungry they will not churning up loose earth.
So an animal does not invent manipulations but performs them as a response to what the situation, in which he fares, offers him. A situation is an observed object or image of a piece of environment by the observation organ.
They are acting always the same in the same situations, they are actually robots.
Even for people it is daily practice, you also do not invent everything that you are performing.
You put the dirt container outside because you see the neighbors have put them already outside, you are taking pills because the strips are laying on the sink. You do a lot of things because the situation impels you to it.
For the brain part, which controls the manipulations, I have conceived a model. It shows schematically how the control of manipulations is established. This model will serve to make the brain functioning, that leads to intelligence, comprehensible.
In this chapter it is not there yet. Here I explain the basis, namely how the model looks at an imaginary animal without intelligence. It is a minimum model, all trivial information is omitted. In the sequel of the book, the model will be further dressed.
An important part of the model is the printed circuit board (hereafter referred to as PCB). It is a metaphor for a brain structure in which the commands to the muscles for one specific manipulation is recorded.
Example: a printed board in your washing machine contains circuits with which you can commit, at your choice, multiple wash programs. It is really a sheet of plastic that contains switching and control devices mutually connected by printed metal strips.
So also similarly the imaginary printed board in the brain of the animal
It contains the brain commands which muscles in what order have to go into action. They are as it were. pre-programmed on the printed board. The animal does not devise which muscles he will use to execute a desired manipulation.
As said, every animal of a species has a number of manipulations, in the model presented as printed circuit boards.
They are located on a vertical ribbon as boats, transversely moored to a pier. That is what I call an arsenal ribbon.
The emergence of these pre-programmed manipulations is the subject of chapters 4 and 5
c. the sitcode and the PCB
In this model the principle of the debit card is an important part. A debit card gives you access to the system of your bank. If you are writing your PIN this number (like a code) travels along all the account holders in the system and finds a match with your account number and the door opens, as it were, where your money lays behind. The door will only open with your PIN.
In the brain model there is also a path where a kind of PIN travels along. That path is the aforementioned arsenal ribbon.
A PCB becomes active when a PIN incites him. Each PCB is equipped with an address plate with the PIN code there on.
Here the PIN code is not a four digit number but an observed situation and is therefore called sitcode (from situation).
That arises as follows:
The outside world is constantly projecting images in the head of the animal. This happens mainly through eyes, but can also happen through hearing, smell or touch. All those organs I give the collective name: observation organ.
I call the images situations, they travel through the
observation organ inside the head and are being compressed by an encoding organ into a package of incentives that in number is smaller than the incoming picture but maintains the characteristic. That package will then act as a PIN but I call it here a sitcode.
It enters the arsenal ribbon and activates the PCB that carries an address likewise the corresponding sitcode.
Example: there is ever made up a PCB with the name "abundant many nuts" at a squirrel. The PCB with that name contains the manipulations in order to one or more notes to be buried.
A squirrel rummages in the autumn around on the ground near trees and finds an abundance of nuts, much more than needed to satisfy his appetite. So a situation with "abundant many notes", the observation organ sends image of it to the encoding organ and this one produces the sitcode "abundant many nuts". That code enters the arsenal ribbon and finds the match with the address "abundant many nuts" and activates the print plate on which burying nuts is recorded.
So it is not a devised manipulation, it is a reflex, he continues to do so even if the winter inventory is more than enough.
Figure 1 Example of a PCB .
This is in a car that drives the alarm system.
Description in accordance with WIKI: A PCB is a carrier, consisting of a plastic plate, for electronic components, wherein the copper wires, known as rails, are arranged on the carrier, often with milling, or etching techniques.
I imagine that the storage of a manipulation of the brains is established in a small network of cells in resemblance to a PCB . This designation I am going to use in sequel for storing a manipulation.
The model is shown schematically in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Storage manipulations for animals without intelligence.
In this example, the sitcode is presented as a four digit number. In reality it is much more complicated: a compressed image of an observed situation.
Example (red line): A chicken is looking for food and arrives at a part with loose soil or covered with leaves. The encoder organ converts this to a sitcode 1567 which then goes into the arsenal ribbon and scans all the nameplates. Then board found in 1567. Its stored manipulation "backward scratch" begins, that is, there are nerve impulses sent to the motor center that control the muscles to crab in reverse.
d. Manipulation and dailey wheeling and dealing.
We have now to look at the following aspect.
I started to define a manipulation as the ability to "carry out all kinds of movements or processes with something".
It is obvious that the life of an animal is not only a concatenation of manipulations. Large parts are filled with moving (walking, climbing, swimming, flying) and sleep. These are not manipulations according to the definition.
These are, however, activities designed to find a manipulation which provides advantage. He is always busy searching for an occasion to obtain an advantage. He recognizes that opportunity by the image that the environment offers him. If that image provides the sitcode that activates a manipulation with advantage then his goal is attained. This determines so his daily wheeling and dealing.