Evolution was not enough to create mankind

Brain cells and their mutual interconnections

structure of brain cells

Above a schematic representation. The axon is enveloped with tubes consisting of a fatty substance: myelin. Beyond the last tube the axon branches off into many branches that make contact with other cells. Only a few are shown here, in reality there are thousands per cell. For that contact each cell has a number of dendrites, which are branches that sprout from the cell. They provide an opportunity for another cell’s axon branches to make contact. That contact occurs through the formation of a synapse that is a combination of a branch end and a spot on a neuron or dendrite branch where the impulses jump over.
In this very simplified example there are 5 neurons in the game (A) to (E), where A is completely shown and B likewise, however, with B showing only the beginning of the axon; and of the others you can only see the ends of the axon branches. The colours are for distinction, all cells have the same color, myelin, here shown in green but in reality it’s white.

cross section of the brain

This photo is a cross section of the brain. The grey parts are mainly the neurons, the white mass the axons and its branches:


It is assumed that until to 0.4 Ma ago, the activities of the brain were established with relatively few mutual connections. Before that time there was a 60 Ma-long period in which an increase in mainly neurons took place. This was accompanied by a parallel increase of the skull volume.
There were of course interconnections to perform brain functions but, as mentioned, not yet to the extent as presently. Then once a brain had developed with many billions of neurons, there was obviously a situation in which increased brainpower was increasingly accomplished  with more synapses instead of more cells. The neurons were used more versatile by more synapses, in other words, started working more efficiently, so there was no need to add more of them in order to let intelligence grow further.
Yes, more brainpower could even be accomplished with less cells. To such an extent even, that the sharp growth of intelligence in the final phase of the incarnation, can be explained by it. Moreover there was less storage space needed, the skull could shrink.

The turning point of 0.4 Ma as moment of transition from hereditary- to growth-intelligence has been derived from the history of brain content in the prehistory. At 0.4 Ma it began to level off and at 0,2 Ma it started decreasing, see figure below. It is an indirect indication for more wiring and less cells.

Thus, the growth-intelligence obtains its full size only when the growth to adulthood is completed. It is also known that the brain then becomes complete by building connections between the cells.

You can see the entire development again shown in a diagram.



Schematic presentation of how the hereditary-intelligence turned into growth-intelligence

hereditary-intelligence to growth-intelligence

This presentation is valid for animals in the evolutionary line leading to humans, so animals with hands. In the circle to the left you see a repetition of step 9 from the paragraph Intelligence theory F of the previous article. Intelligence here is like a bottle with a limited content in which new invented manipulations were saved for reuse. If the bottle was full, there was again a need for a mutation to increase the bottle so that the animal could proceed with inventing new manipulations. This mutation is identified with a letter "a" to distinguish itself from mutation b that comes in a moment. That process took 60 Ma until in 0.4 Ma there occurred a one-time mutation b in hereditary properties that turned the bottle into an open barrel with a floating lid, it virtually became an expansion vessel.
This allowed new accomplishments to be added without evolution (at this point also other types of memory storage were created in addition to the manipulations, hence the general term "accomplishment").
Each addition of an accomplishment meant increase of intelligence, this way of creating more intelligence is called "growth-intelligence". Upon reaching the present time, the growth-intelligence had reached the size of about 30% of the total intelligence. Thus the situation according to what science has determined for the present human being.


Of course there is no sharp transition from hereditary-intelligence to growth-intelligence as presented here, they will have been co-existing for a while and that may even be still the case in the present time. This process is still going on and continues in the future, the Flynn-effect is a confirmation of it. This state of affairs more or less finds confirmation in the human itself, who by learning the accomplishments as a child, undergoes the same development to invent these accomplishments as his ancestors did 0.4 Ma ago.

It is highly likely that the greater efficiency of the brain was caused by more wiring and less neurons (brain cells), and that part of the neurons were replaced by wiring so that less space in the skull was needed.
Why did that mutation, which started the growth-intelligence, not show up earlier? Axons and branches cannot exist without brain cells. There first had to be a so called infrastructure of many cells before an extensive network of wiring could develop. Apparently that was the case in 0.4 Ma.

It also explains the riddle of the previous paragraph: the intelligence also continued to grow in the last phase, but no longer due to evolution. This phenomenon may also shed new light on the cause of the extinction of Homo neanderthal approx. 0.03 Ma years ago.
This homonid probably originated from Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis and lived in Europe and Asia. The locations of fossil finds of Homo heidelbergensis in Europe (Germany, France and in Greece) and in East Africa (Tanzania and Zambia) could mean that the predecessors of Homo neanderthalis, which only existed in Europe, stayed deprived of the phenomenon of growth-intelligence.

The Neanderthal also had a 10% larger brain volume than modern man. He probably underwent no reduction of his skull size, which also indicates that he did not experience the start of growth-intelligence.
The predecessors of Homo sapiens, who remained in Africa, did undergo that mutation though. Homo neanderthal could exist very well without this expansion of intelligence until Homo sapiens arrived in Europe in 0.043 Ma. The latter was much smarter because of his growth- intelligence and won the battle for the resources which meant that the Neanderthal lost out after 0.01 Ma.



Discussion and conclusion

There are two fundamental theorems which supports the argumentation:

  1. The theory F for intelligence which says: a) that intelligence is the ability of the brain to invent a new accomplishments which offers advantage and b) that the size of intelligence is determined by the number of accomplishments that the arsenal has.
  2. the assumption of a mutation in hereditary properties which generates the growth of intelligence because of adding a new accomplishment.
It is possible with the help of the intelligence theory 1) and the assumption 2), to draught a plausible explanation for the phenomenon of the increase of the intelligence during infancy.

It also appears that the present man could not have emerged with Darwinian evolution only. Or in other words: Evolution was not enough to create mankind
This theory explains the behaviour of animals and humans in several respects and therefore renders the reality with great probability.






Illustrations by the author